How does Separation and Divorce Impact Infants?

All children regardless of age experience separation and divorce as painful processes that disrupt their lives.  In fact, more than half of the children who experience divorce, do so by the 6, and 75% of these children are younger than 3 years of age.  If parents separate during the period of infancy, the infant will not understand what is happening but may notice changes in the parents’ emotions and level of energy.


Basic Care and Emotional Stability

Infants depend on their parents for their basic care and emotional stability.  Infants are learning to trust and form close relationships with their caretakers.  Separation interferes with an expected sense of predictability and stability in the infant’s life.  Three factors generally add to their state of confusion and anxiety:  (1) dramatic changes in daily routines, (2) the emotional distress of one or both parents, and (3) conflict between the parents.

Continued Conflict

While many parents understand the importance of predictable schedules, and consistent childcare arrangements, many are unaware of how distressing continued conflict between parents is to infants.  Although infants may not understand the words parents are using, they are very aware of the emotion being felt and expressed by their parents and are frightened by them.  Infants are attuned and observant and can sense changes in a parent’s mood or voice.  In addition, they are affected by changes in a parent’s facial expression, tone of voice, and body tension.

Separation from Parents

Older infants may notice that one parent is no longer in the home.  Thus, they may cry for that parent.  Infants may become distressed when a parent leaves the house or goes into another room.  They often worry about being separated from their parents for long periods of time, even when they are being cared for by a familiar caregiver.  They may become more irritable, fussy or cry more often.  In addition, infants may:

  • exhibit a loss of developmental milestones, such as retiring to the bottle, waking at night, crawling and refusal of enjoyable foods;
  • demonstrate fear by becoming clingy and refusing to separate from the parent, by shying away from activity with familiar adults and/or by not taking pleasure in exploring the environment;
  • exhibit intense feelings of frustration and anger through yelling, biting, hitting, throwing things or banging their head;
  • become extremely angry when their basic needs are not met or when care taking schedules are unpredictable; and/or
  • appear listless and withdrawn (Boyan & Termini, 2005)

Ann Marie Termini, Ed.S., M.S., LPC